For someone with bipolar disorder, coping strategies are crucial for attaining and maintaining stability. However, Dr. Charles Raison, a Psychiatrist at Emory University Medical School, comments that "bipolar disorder is too difficult to succumb to any single type of 'magic bullet.'" Therefore, different people have different coping strategies; however, all should have at least a steady sleep routine. Dr. Raison discusses the pros and difficulties of keeping a routine to help control symptoms of bipolar disorder when he says, "I have personally had great luck with using routines (or more formally chronotherapy) to help people with bipolar disorder. One of the sickest patients I ever cared for was able to completely turn her life around by committing deeply to establishing very strict routines that helped stabilize her sleep." Using chronotherapy, an attempt is made to move bedtime and rising time later and later each day, around the clock, until these times reach the number of hours of sleep per night that someone with an illness such as bipolar disorder needs to be fully functional. According to Michael B Russo, MD, the number of hours of sleep per night necessary for an individual to be fully functional is still unknown because the function of sleep has yet to be fully determined. Some people claim full effectiveness with only 3–5 hours of sleep per night, while others admit to needing 8 (or more) hours of sleep per night to perform effectively. It is generally suggested, however, that people who have bipolar disorder sleep a minimum of 8 uninterrupted hours of sleep per night, and that they go to bed at the same time and rise at the same time every day as well. If they have too little sleep, it can lead to a bipolar manic episode, and too much can lead to a bipolar depressive episode. While chronotherapy has been successful for some, it is necessary to strictly keep the same desired sleep/wake cycle from then on, after it has been corrected. Any deviation in schedule tends to allow the body clock to shift later again, and the process needs to be repeated. Other people with bipolar disorder and a sleep disorder (which is a common co-morbid illness) need to depend on medication to control their sleep. Some people have problems falling asleep at first; while other people have trouble staying asleep throughout the night. If you believe you have a sleep problem and are considering chronotherapy, talk to your doctor about helping you with it, and/or getting a formal sleep study first. You may have a sleep disorder that is complicating your recovery from bipolar disorder.